Objective: To assess the relationship of serum lipid concentrations with glucose control in youth with diabetes mellitus.
Design: Cross-sectional analyses of data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study.
Setting: Multicenter study of youth with diabetes onset at younger than 20 years. PATIENTS/ PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen hundred seventy-three SEARCH participants aged 10 years or older with hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride measured at the SEARCH study examination.
Main exposure: Hemoglobin A(1c).
Outcome measure: Lipid concentrations.
Results: There were significant trends of higher levels of TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and non-HDL-C (but not HDL-C) with higher hemoglobin A(1c) concentrations for both diabetes types. The slopes of TC increase were 7.8 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) per unit increase in hemoglobin A(1c) for type 1 and 8.1 mg/dL (0.21 mmol/L) for type 2. Levels of TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and non-HDL-C were all significantly higher (all P values <.001) in type 2 than in type 1 diabetes (mean differences in milligrams per deciliter [millimoles per liter], +13.6 [+0.35] for TC; +8.3 [+0.22] for LDL-C; +66.3 [+0.75] for triglyceride; +25.5 [+0.66] for non-HDL-C). Levels of HDL-C were lower in youth with type 2 diabetes (mean difference, -11.9 mg/dL [-0.31 mmol/L]). Among those with type 1 diabetes in poor glycemic control, 35%, 27%, and 12% had high concentrations of TC (>or=200 mg/dL [5.17 mmol/L]), LDL-C (>or=130 mg/dL [3.36 mmol/L]), and triglyceride (>or=200 mg/dL [2.26 mmol/L]), respectively. In youth with type 2 diabetes in poor glycemic control, percentages with high levels of TC, LDL-C, and triglycerides were 65%, 43%, and 40%, respectively.
Conclusions: Glycemic control and lipid levels are independently associated in youth with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.