Voriconazole (VFEND), a synthetic second-generation, broad-spectrum triazole derivative of fluconazole, inhibits the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent enzyme 14-alpha-sterol demethylase, thereby disrupting the cell membrane and halting fungal growth. In the US, intravenous and/or oral voriconazole is recommended in adults for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, candidaemia in non-neutropenic patients, disseminated infections caused by Candida spp., oesophageal candidiasis, and in patients with scedosporiosis and fusariosis who are refractory to or intolerant of other antifungal therapy. In Europe, intravenous and/or oral voriconazole is recommended in adults and paediatric patients of at least 2 years of age for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, candidaemia in non-neutropenic patients, fluconazole-resistant serious invasive Candida spp. infections, scedosporiosis and fusariosis. In large randomised trials, voriconazole was an effective and generally well tolerated primary treatment for candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis in adults and adolescents. More limited data also support the use of voriconazole for the treatment of invasive fungal infections in children, in those with rare fungal infections, such as Fusarium spp. or Scedosporium spp., and in those refractory to or intolerant of other standard antifungal therapies. The availability of both parenteral and oral formulations and the almost complete absorption of the drug after oral administration provide for ease of use and potential cost savings, and ensure that therapeutic plasma concentrations are maintained when switching from intravenous to oral therapy. On the other hand, the numerous drug interactions associated with voriconazole may limit its usefulness in some patients. Further clinical experience will help to more fully determine the position of voriconazole in relation to other licensed antifungal agents. In the meantime, voriconazole is a valuable emerging option for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and rare fungal infections, including Fusarium spp. and Scedosporium spp. infections, and provides an alternative option for the treatment of candidiasis, particularly where the causative organism is inherently resistant to other licensed antifungal agents.