The spatio-temporal proliferation pattern of postembryonic neuroblasts in the central brain region of the supra-esophageal ganglion of Drosophila melanogaster was studied by labeling DNA replicating cells with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). There are five proliferating neuroblasts per hemisphere in larvae just after hatching: one in the ventro-lateral, and the other four in the postero-dorsal region of the brain. Dividing neuroblasts increase during the late first-late second instar larval stages, reaching a plateau of about 85 neuroblasts per hemisphere. Most neuroblasts cease dividing 20-30 hr after puparium formation (APF), while only four in the postero-dorsal region continue making progenies until 85-90 hr APF. The four distinct neuroblasts proliferating in the early larval and late pupal stages are identical; they lie in the cortex above the calyces of the mushroom bodies (corpora pedunculata), proliferating over a period twice as long as that for the other neuroblasts. Their daughter neurons project into the mushroom body neuropile, and hence are likely to be the Kenyon cells. The cell-cycle period of the four neuroblasts (named mushroom body neuroblasts: MBNbs) is rather constant (1.1-1.5 hr) during the mid larval-early pupal stages and is longer before and after that. The total number of the MBNb progenies made throughout the embryonic and postembryonic development was estimated to be 800-1200 per hemisphere.