A measure of nicotine dependence for smokeless tobacco users

Addict Behav. 2007 Sep;32(9):1970-5. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.01.005. Epub 2007 Jan 11.


The objective of the present study was to examine the properties of a modification of the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence in a large sample of smokeless tobacco (ST) users. The subjects for this study included 256 males who were recruited for a tobacco cessation intervention that involved a visit with a dentist and advice to quit smoking during the exam. At baseline, the modified dependence scale was administered to the participants and a saliva sample was collected to measure cotinine. The correlation between the total score and salivary cotinine was moderate among the ST only users (r=0.34), whereas it was lower (r=0.19) among the ST+cigarette users. Among ST only users, the coefficient alpha was 0.40; however it was considerably higher among the ST+cigarettes group (alpha=0.61). In both cases, the coefficient alpha was lower than the recommended value of 0.70. Future research should focus on refining questionnaires that more precisely measure nicotine dependence in smokeless tobacco users.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / epidemiology*
  • Tobacco, Smokeless*