A phylogenetic study based on sequence analysis of the beta-tubulin, hydrophobin and calmodulin genes was performed in 19 strains of Aspergillus fumigatus and related species isolated from clinical specimens in Japan. Correlations between detailed morphology and phylogeny were examined. Species in the section Fumigati were divided into five clades: clade I, typical strains of A. fumigatus; clade II, species including A. lentulus and A. fumisynnematus; clade III, species including A. fumigatiaffinis and A. novofumigatus, clade IV, atypical strains of A. fumigatus including A. viridinutans; and clade V, species including A. brevipes, A. duricaulis and A. unilateralis. Most of the examined strains from clinical specimens in Japan clustered together in clade I and exhibit globose conidia with lobate-reticulate ornamentation. Other strains from clinical specimens were divided into two clades (clades II and IV). The strains in clades II and the six strains in clade IV exhibit conidia with microtuberculate ornamentation, while A. viridinutans-complex in clades IV and the strains in clade V have conidia with lobate-reticulate ornamentation. The six strains are clearly distinguished from A. viridinutans-complex and are considered to be related to Neosartorya udagawae. The maximal growth temperatures of clades I, II, IV and V were above 50 degrees C, 45 degrees C, 42 degrees C and 42 degrees C, respectively. These data are useful for classification of species within the Aspergillus section Fumigati.