Most modern treatment protocols for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) include the analysis of minimal residual disease (MRD). To ensure comparable MRD results between different MRD-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) laboratories, standardization and quality control are essential. The European Study Group on MRD detection in ALL (ESG-MRD-ALL), consisting of 30 MRD-PCR laboratories worldwide, has developed guidelines for the interpretation of real-time quantitative PCR-based MRD data. The application of these guidelines ensures identical interpretation of MRD data between different laboratories of the same MRD-based clinical protocol. Furthermore, the ESG-MRD-ALL guidelines will facilitate the comparison of MRD data obtained in different treatment protocols, including those with new drugs.