Despite Medicare coverage, receipt of clinical preventive services is suboptimal. Using multivariate regression analyses and Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) data for 2001, we estimated the relationship between the number of preventive services received in the 12-month recall period and: socioeconomics, plan type, health status, health risks, and ability to address daily needs. Results are nationally representative for the study year. With the exception of blood pressure and cholesterol screening, approximately one- to two-thirds of Medicare beneficiaries did not receive recommended preventive services. Strategies should be developed to ensure appropriate use of preventive services over time.