Interspecific variation in patterns of adhesion of marine fouling to silicone surfaces

Biofouling. 2006;22(3-4):233-43. doi: 10.1080/08927010600826129.


The adhesion of six fouling organisms: the barnacle Balanus eburneus, the gastropod mollusc Crepidulafornicata, the bivalve molluscs Crassostrea virginica and Ostrea/Dendrostrea spp., and the serpulid tubeworms Hydroides dianthus and H. elegans, to 12 silicone fouling-release surfaces was examined. Removal stress (adhesion strength) varied among the fouling species and among the surfaces. Principal component analysis of the removal stress data revealed that the fouling species fell into two distinct groups, one comprising the bivalve molluscs and tubeworms, and the other the barnacle and the gastropod mollusc. None of the silicone materials generated a minimum in removal stress for all the organisms tested, although several surfaces produced low adhesion strengths for both groups of species. These results suggest that fouling-release materials do not rank (in terms of adhesion strength) identically for all fouling organisms, and thus development of a globally-effective hull coating will continue to require testing against a diversity of encrusting species.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adhesiveness
  • Animals
  • Geologic Sediments
  • Marine Biology
  • Mollusca / physiology*
  • Oceans and Seas
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Silicones / chemistry*
  • Species Specificity
  • Thoracica / physiology*


  • Silicones