Chemokines are critical mediators of cell migration during routine immune surveillance, inflammation, and development. Chemokines bind to G protein-coupled receptors and cause conformational changes that trigger intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell movement and activation. Although chemokines evolved to benefit the host, inappropriate regulation or utilization of these proteins can contribute to or cause many diseases. Specific chemokine receptors provide the portals for HIV to get into cells, and others contribute to inflammatory diseases and cancer. Thus, there is significant interest in developing receptor antagonists. To this end, the structures of ligands coupled with mutagenesis studies have revealed mechanisms for antagonism based on modified proteins. Although little direct structural information is available on the receptors, binding of small molecules to mutant receptors has allowed the identification of key residues involved in the receptor-binding pockets. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of chemokine:receptor structure and function, and its contribution to drug discovery.