We conducted the present study to investigate whether and how chemosensitivity can be determined by means of genetic diagnosis using drug-resistance genes in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. A total of 75 patients who had epithelial ovarian cancer with measurable lesions were entered into this study. Thirty-three patients received first-line chemotherapy, consisting of paclitaxel and carboplatin (TJ). Forty-two patients received second-line chemotherapy, 22 received EP therapy consisting of etoposide and cisplatin (CDDP), and 20 received irinotecan (CPT-11) and CDDP (CPT-11/CDDP) therapy. Tumor samples were obtained before chemotherapy. MessengerRNA expressions of the multidrug-resistance (MDR)-1 gene, MDR-associated protein-1 (MRP-1), topoisomerase (topo) I, and topo IIalpha were measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cutoff values of each gene were determined by the receiver operating characteristic curve. MDR-1 expression was significantly higher in patients who did not respond to TJ therapy. The expression of topo IIalpha was significantly higher in patients who did respond to EP therapy. The expression of topo I was significantly higher in patients who did respond to CPT-11/CDDP. MRP-1 expression did not differ between responders and nonresponders in all regimens. The cutoff value was 80 for MDR-1, 90 for topo IIalpha, and 200 for topo I. Next, to evaluate genetic diagnosis, 31 patients were newly added. The accuracy of this genetic diagnosis for chemosensitivity was 85.7% for TJ, 77.8% for EP, and 100.0% for CPT-11/CDDP therapy. The present study suggests that genetic diagnosis may be useful to determine chemosensitivity in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.