The immune system relies on the motility on various cell types that roam the host through the blood, the peripheral tissues and the lymphoid organs, looking for pathogens. Along their maturation and/or activation, the cell migratory capacities change in order to allow them to leave organs where they have been produced such as thymus and bone marrow, to locate in strategic sites to sense surrounding microbes, to meet and interact with other cells, and finally to access peripheral tissues and organs to eradicate the pathogens. This cell traffic is a highly organized process that involves numerous protein families such as adhesion molecules, proteases and chemotactic factors. Among the latter, chemokines are in the front line. We will here summarize the recent findings stressing out their physiopathological relevance and will describe thereafter their possible therapeutic use.