Anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal effects of a novel diclofenac derivative

Free Radic Biol Med. 2007 Mar 1;42(5):706-19. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2006.12.011. Epub 2006 Dec 16.


S-diclofenac (2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino]benzeneacetic acid 4-(3H-1,2,dithiol-3-thione-5-yl)phenyl ester; ACS 15) is a novel molecule comprising a hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing dithiol-thione moiety attached by an ester linkage to diclofenac. S-diclofenac administration inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation (as evidenced by reduced lung and liver myeloperoxidase activity) and caused significantly less gastric toxicity than diclofenac. S-diclofenac did not affect blood pressure or heart rate of the anesthetized rat. S-diclofenac administration downregulated expression of genes encoding enzymes which synthesize nitric oxide, prostanoids, and H2S; reduced plasma IL-1beta/TNF-alpha; and elevated plasma IL-10. Reduced liver NF-kappaB p65 and AP-1/c-fos DNA-binding activity was also observed. These effects were mimicked in large part by a combination of diclofenac plus an H2S-releasing moiety (ADT-OH). Incubation of S-diclofenac (100 microM) with rat plasma or liver homogenate caused a time-dependent release of H2S, which was inhibited by sodium fluoride (10 mM). Administration of S-diclofenac (47.2 micromol/kg, i.p.) to conscious rats significantly increased plasma H2S concentration (at 45 min and 6 h). We propose that H2S release from S-diclofenac in vivo contributes to the observed effects.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / adverse effects
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Diclofenac / adverse effects
  • Diclofenac / analogs & derivatives*
  • Diclofenac / pharmacokinetics
  • Diclofenac / pharmacology
  • Diclofenac / therapeutic use
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / drug effects*
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Male
  • Models, Biological
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Shock, Septic / chemically induced
  • Shock, Septic / prevention & control
  • Thiones / pharmacology


  • 2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)benzeneacetic acid 4-(3H-1,2-dithiol-3-thione-5-yl)phenyl ester
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Thiones
  • Diclofenac