Traumatic brain injury (TBI) commonly impacts on the connections and interactions between signals from sensory, cognitive, motor and emotional systems and signals transmitted via both visual and non-visual retinal fiber pathways. The non-visual retinal pathways are actively involved in aspects of living, such as spatial orientation, auditory localization, circadian rhythm and motor function. Non-visual retinal signal processing and linkage dysfunctions require more than specialized neuro-ophthalmologic or traditional eye care evaluation. Neuro-optometric techniques, such as discussed herein, are necessary to test the complex, often overlooked interrelationships among these systems. As part of a multi-disciplinary approach, neuro-optometric intervention is an essential consideration for the optimal diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation following a TBI.