To evaluate the usefulness of structural and biochemical imaging techniques for the diagnosis of uveal melanoma, 12 patients with choroidal melanoma were examined. Magnetic resonance imaging was used in 11 of 12 patients, as one had a metal prosthesis. All the subjects underwent single photon planar scintigraphy (SPPS) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using the 99mTc-labeled F(ab')2 of the anti-melanoma monoclonal antibody 225.28S ([99mTc]MoAb) and positron emission tomography (PET) using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG). Magnetic resonance identified 6 of 11 melanotic lesions (definite melanomas) and 4 of 11 hypomelanotic lesions (probable melanomas), whereas in one case it was inconclusive. [99mTc]MoAb uptake was observed in 5 of 12 lesions using SPPS and 8 of 12 lesions using SPECT. [18F]FDG uptake was observed in 3 of 12 lesions by PET. These results demonstrate that both MR and radioimmunoscintigraphy are sensitive techniques for the diagnosis of choroidal melanomas and suggest that the detection of melanomas by MR, SPPS, and SPECT is largely dependent upon their size. The validity of these conclusions was verified in four subjects in whom the diagnosis was based on MR and/or SPECT findings only and confirmed by histology. The finding that only some of the uveal melanomas of larger size are visualized based on [18F]FDG uptake suggests that melanomas can have either high or low glucose consumption.