Highly purified peroxisomes from the yeast Pichia pastoris grown on methanol or oleic acid, respectively, were used to characterize the lipid composition of this organelle. For this purpose, an isolation procedure had to be adapted which yielded highly purified P. pastoris peroxisomes. When peroxisome proliferation was induced by growth on methanol, alcohol oxidase was the predominant peroxisomal protein. Cultivation of P. pastoris on oleic acid led to induction of a family of peroxisomal enzymes catalyzing fatty acid beta-oxidation, whose most prominent members were identified by mass spectrometry. On either carbon source, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the major peroxisomal phospholipids, and cardiolipin was present in peroxisomal membranes at a substantial amount, indicating that this phospholipid is a true peroxisomal component. Ergosterol was the most abundant sterol of P. pastoris peroxisomal membranes irrespective of the culture conditions. The fatty acid composition of whole cells and peroxisomes was highly affected by cultivation of P. pastoris on oleic acid. Under these conditions, oleic acid became the predominant fatty acid in phospholipids from total cell and peroxisomal extracts. Thus, oleic acid was not only utilized as an appropriate carbon source but also as a building block for complex membrane lipids. In summary, our data provide first insight into biochemical properties of P. pastoris peroxisomal membranes, which may become important for the biotechnological use of this yeast.