Heterocyclic amine carcinogens such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) are present in diet and cigarette smoke. Bioactivation in humans includes N-hydroxylation catalyzed by cytochrome P4501A2 possibly followed by O-acetylation catalyzed by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). Nucleotide excision repair-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were stably transfected with human CYP1A2 and either NAT2*4 (rapid acetylator) or NAT2*5B (slow acetylator) alleles. CYP1A2 and NAT2 catalytic activities were undetectable in untransfected CHO cell lines. CYP1A2 catalytic activity levels did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among the CYP1A2-transfected cell lines. Cells transfected with NAT2*4 had significantly higher levels of N-acetyltransferase (P = 0.0001) and N-hydroxy-PhIP O-acetyltransferase (P = 0.0170) catalytic activity than cells transfected with NAT2*5B. PhIP caused dose-dependent decreases in cell survival and significant (P < 0.001) increases in mutagenesis measured at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in all the CYP1A2-transfected cell lines. Transfection with NAT2*4 or NAT2*5B did not further increase hprt mutagenesis. PhIP-induced hprt mutant cDNAs were sequenced, and 80% of the mutations were single base substitutions at G:C base pairs. dG-C8-PhIP DNA adduct levels were dose-dependent in the order: untransfected < transfected with CYP1A2 < transfected with CYP1A2 and NAT2*5B < transfected with CYP1A2 and NAT2*4. Following incubation with 1.2 microM PhIP, DNA adduct levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in CHO cells transfected with CYP1A2/NAT2*4 versus CYP1A2/NAT2*5B. These results strongly support an activation role for CYP1A2 in PhIP-induced mutagenesis and DNA damage and suggest a modest effect of human NAT2 and its genetic polymorphism on PhIP DNA adduct levels.
(c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.