Single intraperitoneal injections of three, seven, or 10 mg. of sodium oxalate per 100 gm. of rat body weight were administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats. At various times after the injection, urine samples were analyzed for oxalate, and urinary enzymes, alkaline phosphatase, leucine aminopeptidase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase. The kidneys were processed for light microscopy and renal calcium and oxalate determination. Oxalate administration resulted in an increase in urinary oxalate and formation of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidneys. The amount and duration of urinary excretion of excess oxalate and retention of crystals in the kidneys correlated with the dose of sodium oxalate administered. At a low oxalate dose of three mg./100 gm., crystals moved rapidly down the nephron and cleared the kidneys. At higher doses crystals were retained in kidneys and at a dose of 10 mg./100 gm. were still there seven days post-injection. Crystal retention was associated with enhanced excretion of urinary enzymes indicating renal tubular epithelial injury.