This study was to investigate clinical characteristics and any differential trends in survival among renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis [HD], peritoneal dialysis [PD], and kidney transplantation [KT]) in Korean end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population. We tried to analyze retrospectively the survival rate adjusted by risk factors and the relative risk stratified by key risk factors among 447 ESRD patients who began dialysis or had a kidney transplant at Ajou University Hospital from 1994 to 2004. In adjusted Cox survival curves, the KT patients had the best survival rate, and the HD patients had better survival than PD patients. The consistent trends in different subgroups stratified by age and diabetes were as following: 1) The risk of death for PD and HD was not proportional over time, 2) The relative risk of PD was similar or lower than that of HD for the first 12 months, but it became higher at later period. The significant predictors for mortality were age (over 55 yr), presence of diabetes, cerebrovascular accident at ESRD onset, and more than one time of hospitalization caused by malnutrition. Further large-scaled, multicenter-based comparative study is needed in Korean ESRD patients and more meticulous attention is required in high-risk patients.