Erv2p: characterization of the redox behavior of a yeast sulfhydryl oxidase

Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 20;46(11):3246-54. doi: 10.1021/bi602499t. Epub 2007 Feb 14.

Abstract

The FAD prosthetic group of the ERV/ALR family of sulfhydryl oxidases is housed at the mouth of a 4-helix bundle and communicates with a pair of juxtaposed cysteine residues that form the proximal redox active disulfide. Most of these enzymes have one or more additional distal disulfide redox centers that facilitate the transfer of reducing equivalents from the dithiol substrates of these oxidases to the isoalloxazine ring where the reaction with molecular oxygen occurs. The present study examines yeast Erv2p and compares the redox behavior of this ER luminal protein with the augmenter of liver regeneration, a sulfhydryl oxidase of the mitochondrial intermembrane space, and a larger protein containing the ERV/ALR domain, quiescin-sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX). Dithionite and photochemical reductions of Erv2p show full reduction of the flavin cofactor after the addition of 4 electrons with a midpoint potential of -200 mV at pH 7.5. A charge-transfer complex between a proximal thiolate and the oxidized flavin is not observed in Erv2p consistent with a distribution of reducing equivalents over the flavin and distal disulfide redox centers. Upon coordination with Zn2+, full reduction of Erv2p requires 6 electrons. Zn2+ also strongly inhibits Erv2p when assayed using tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) as the reducing substrate of the oxidase. In contrast to QSOX, Erv2p shows a comparatively low turnover with a range of small thiol substrates, with reduced Escherichia coli thioredoxin and with unfolded proteins. Rapid reaction studies confirm that reduction of the flavin center of Erv2p is rate-limiting during turnover with molecular oxygen. This comparison of the redox properties between members of the ERV/ALR family of sulfhydryl oxidases provides insights into their likely roles in oxidative protein folding.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Dithionite / metabolism
  • Dithiothreitol / metabolism
  • Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oxidoreductases / metabolism*
  • Photochemistry
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / enzymology
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / metabolism*
  • Spectrum Analysis
  • Zinc / pharmacology

Substances

  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide
  • Dithionite
  • Oxidoreductases
  • ERV2 protein, S cerevisiae
  • sulfhydryl oxidase
  • Zinc
  • Dithiothreitol