A systems biology dynamical model of mammalian G1 cell cycle progression

Mol Syst Biol. 2007;3:84. doi: 10.1038/msb4100126. Epub 2007 Feb 13.


The current dogma of G(1) cell-cycle progression relies on growth factor-induced increase of cyclin D:Cdk4/6 complex activity to partially inactivate pRb by phosphorylation and to sequester p27(Kip1)-triggering activation of cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes that further inactivate pRb. pRb oscillates between an active, hypophosphorylated form associated with E2F transcription factors in early G(1) phase and an inactive, hyperphosphorylated form in late G(1), S and G(2)/M phases. However, under constant growth factor stimulation, cells show constitutively active cyclin D:Cdk4/6 throughout the cell cycle and thereby exclude cyclin D:Cdk4/6 inactivation of pRb. To address this paradox, we developed a mathematical model of G(1) progression using physiological expression and activity profiles from synchronized cells exposed to constant growth factors and included a metabolically responsive, activating modifier of cyclin E:Cdk2. Our mathematical model accurately simulates G(1) progression, recapitulates observations from targeted gene deletion studies and serves as a foundation for development of therapeutics targeting G(1) cell-cycle progression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cyclin E
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
  • G1 Phase / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / pharmacology
  • Mammals
  • Models, Biological*
  • Systems Biology / methods*


  • Cyclin E
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2