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Review
, 38 (1), 113-28

A Review of Driving Risks and Impairments Associated With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and the Effects of Stimulant Medication on Driving Performance

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Review

A Review of Driving Risks and Impairments Associated With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and the Effects of Stimulant Medication on Driving Performance

Russell A Barkley et al. J Safety Res.

Abstract

Introduction: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may interfere with driving competence, predisposing those with the disorder to impaired driving performance and greater risk for adverse driving outcomes. Effective treatment may minimize the risk in those with ADHD.

Method: We reviewed the scientific literature on driving risks and impairments associated with ADHD and the effects of stimulants on driving performance. Several lines of evidence were considered, including longitudinal studies and community-derived sample studies. The present review is based on a weekly review (by the first author) of all journals in the behavioral and social sciences indexed in the publication Current Contents spanning the past 15 years, as well as a search of the reference section of all studies found that pertained to driving risks associated with ADHD or to the treatment of ADHD as it relates to driving difficulties.

Results: The review of the scientific literature demonstrated well-documented driving risks and impairments associated with ADHD and the positive effects of stimulant medications on driving performance.

Conclusions: Clinicians should educate patients/caregivers about the increased risk of adverse outcomes among untreated individuals with ADHD and the role of medication in potentially improving driving performance.

Impact on industry: Owing to the significantly higher risk of adverse driving outcomes, the use of stimulant medications to treat people with ADHD who drive may reduce such safety risks.

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