Menstrual and reproductive factors and risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction in Italy

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2007 Sep;134(1):67-72. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2007.01.005. Epub 2007 Feb 15.


Objective: We analyzed the relation between factors related to endogenous female hormones and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Study design: We used a combined dataset from three Italian case-control studies, including 609 women with non-fatal AMI and 1106 controls hospitalized for acute conditions.

Results: The odds ratios (OR) of AMI were 1.36 (95% confidence intervals, CI 0.95-1.96) in women with an irregular menstrual pattern compared to a regular one, and 1.45 (95% CI 1.07-1.97) in parae compared to nulliparae, without linear trend in risk with number of children. No relation was found with menopausal status, age at menarche and menopause, abortion, and age at first and last birth. Compared to women without abortions the OR was 0.84 (95% CI 0.60-1.18) for >1 abortion; compared to women without spontaneous or induced abortion, the ORs were 0.92 (95% CI 0.62-1.38) for >1 spontaneous and 0.63 (95% CI 0.36-1.08) for >1 induced abortion. The association of parity and irregular menstrual cycles was stronger in pre-/peri-menopausal women and in current smokers. Compared to nonsmokers with regular menstrual cycle, the OR was 5.98 (95% CI 3.38-10.56) for smokers with irregular one, and compared to nonsmokers nulliparae the OR for smokers parae was 4.77 (95% CI 3.12-7.29).

Conclusions: Irregular menstrual cycles and parity were related to increased AMI risk, mainly among pre-/peri-menopausal women and among smokers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Italy
  • Menarche
  • Menopause
  • Menstrual Cycle*
  • Menstruation Disturbances / complications*
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / complications*
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Parity*
  • Pregnancy
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects