The ability of insulin to decrease urinary sodium excretion has been recognized for more than 30 years. While most investigators agree that this occurs predominantly through increased tubular sodium reabsorption, the nephron segments at which insulin exerts this effect in vivo remain controversial. Additionally, little information is available in mammalian systems on the mechanism of the insulin response or its relation to other hormonal systems important in the regulation of tubular sodium transport. Data from amphibian transporting epithelia suggest a potential for interactions between insulin and several other peptide hormones in the regulation of sodium transport. The following discussion attempts to review our knowledge of the effects of insulin on renal sodium reabsorption and describes new data suggesting that insulin's antinatriuretic response is dependent on antidiuretic hormone but independent of the angiotensin and prostaglandin systems.