Proteomic experiments were performed to identify novel glutathione (GSH) binding proteins expressed in the mammalian central nervous system. Bovine brain lysate was affinity purified using an immobilized glutathione-Sepharose column. Proteins that bound the immobilized glutathione were eluted with free glutathione and identified by one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometric analysis of tryptic fragments. Major proteins purified by this technique were glutathione S-transferase-mu (GST-mu) and GST-pi and lanthionine synthase C-like protein-1 (LanCL1). LanCL1 is a mammalian homologue of a prokaryotic enzyme responsible for the synthesis of thioether (lanthionine) cross-links within nascent polypeptide chains, yielding macrocyclic proteins with potent microbicidal activity. An antibody against LanCL1 was generated and applied to immunochemical studies of spinal cord tissue from SOD1G93A transgenic mice, a model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), wherein LanCL1 expression was found to be increased at presymptomatic stages of the disease. These results indicate LanCL1 is a glutathione binding protein possibly significant to neurodegenerative disease.