Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with food poisoning outbreaks in France

Int J Food Microbiol. 2007 Apr 20;115(3):369-75. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.10.050. Epub 2007 Jan 17.


Enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus are responsible for staphylococcal food-poisoning outbreaks (SFPO). In France, SFPO are the second cause of food-borne diseases after Salmonella. However, very little is known about the strains involved. The objective of this study was to characterize the staphylococcal strains related to these SFPO through phenotypic and genotypic analyses. A total of 178 coagulase-positive staphylococcal isolates recovered from 31 SFPO (1981-2002) were screened through biotyping. Thirty-three strains representative of the different biotypes in each SFPO were further examined for SmaI macrorestriction-type, phage-type, resistance to various antimicrobial drugs, presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin (se) genes sea to sei, and production of enterotoxins SEA to SED. All these 33 strains were identified as S. aureus species: 27 were of human biotypes and six ovine or non-host-specific biotypes. Most (74.1%) strains reacted with group III phages. Eleven strains were resistant to at least two classes of antibiotics and among them, two were resistant to methicillin. Twenty-nine strains carried one or several of the eight se genes tested; the gene sea was most common (n=23), and often linked to sed (n=12) or seh (n=5). The novel se genes seg-i were in all cases associated with se genes sea to sed except for one strain which carried only seg and sei. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) of SmaI macrorestriction digests of the 33 strains discriminated 32 PFGE patterns grouped into nine biotype-specific clusters. All five strains carrying sea and seh were grouped together into the same sub-cluster. Three of the four se-gene-negative strains were in one PFGE cluster: all four should be tested for se genes not included in this study and, if negative, be further investigated for the presence of unidentified SEs.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Disease Outbreaks
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
  • Enterotoxins / genetics*
  • Food Contamination / analysis*
  • Food Microbiology
  • France / epidemiology
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Phenotype
  • Phylogeny*
  • Staphylococcal Food Poisoning / epidemiology
  • Staphylococcal Food Poisoning / microbiology*
  • Staphylococcus aureus / classification*
  • Staphylococcus aureus / genetics*
  • Staphylococcus aureus / isolation & purification


  • Enterotoxins