Sepsis is a disease with a high and growing prevalence worldwide. Most studies on sepsis up to date have been focused on reduction of short-term mortality. This study investigates cognitive and neuroanatomical long-term consequences of sepsis in a rat model. Sepsis was induced in male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g by an i.p. injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg/kg). Three months after complete recovery from sepsis, animals showed memory deficits in the radial maze and changes in open field exploratory patterns but unaffected inhibitory avoidance learning. Behavioral findings were matched by sepsis-induced loss of neurons in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex on serial sections after NeuN-staining and reduced cholinergic innervation in the parietal cortex measured by immunoradiography of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Together these results suggest that sepsis can induce persistent behavioral and neuroanatomical changes and warrant studies of the neurological long-term consequences of sepsis in humans.