Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand induces the expression of carbonic anhydrase II, cathepsin K, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cells

Life Sci. 2007 Mar 13;80(14):1311-8. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2006.12.037. Epub 2007 Jan 23.


Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is a potent stimulator of bone resorption and an inhibitor of bone formation, whereas macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) are essential and sufficient for osteoclast differentiation. Recently, we showed that IL-1alpha affects mineralized nodule formation in vitro and halts bone matrix turnover. We also showed that IL-1alpha stimulates osteoclast formation via the interaction of RANKL with RANK by increasing M-CSF and prostaglandin E(2) and decreasing osteoprotegerin. Here, we examined the effects of IL-1alpha or RANKL and/or M-CSF in the presence of IL-1alpha on the expression of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), RANK, M-CSF receptor (c-fms), and c-fos transcription factor using RAW264.7 cells as osteoclast precursors. Cells were cultured for up to 14 days in 0 or 100 U/ml IL-1alpha and either 50 ng/ml RANKL, 10 ng/ml M-CSF, or 50 ng/ml RANKL+10 ng/ml M-CSF in the presence of 100 U/ml IL-1alpha. The formation of osteoclast-like cells was estimated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Expression of the genes coding for the six proteins of interest was determined using real-time PCR, and the expression of the three enzymes was examined using Western blotting or ELISA. In the presence of IL-1alpha, expression of CAII, cathepsin K, and MMP-9 was markedly increased in cells cultured with RANKL or M-CSF+RANKL, whereas expression was difficult to detect in cells cultured with IL-1alpha alone and M-CSF. RANK and c-fos expression was also increased in cells cultured with RANKL or M-CSF+RANKL in the presence of IL-1alpha, whereas c-fms expression did not change. These results indicate that the expression of CAII, cathepsin K, and MMP-9 in RAW264.7 cells is not induced by M-CSF, but by RANKL in the presence of IL-1alpha.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carbonic Anhydrase II / genetics
  • Carbonic Anhydrase II / metabolism*
  • Cathepsin K
  • Cathepsins / genetics
  • Cathepsins / metabolism*
  • Cell Line
  • Drug Combinations
  • Gene Expression / drug effects
  • Interleukin-1alpha / pharmacology
  • Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / pharmacology
  • Macrophages / cytology
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / genetics
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • NF-kappa B / genetics
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism*
  • Osteoclasts / drug effects*
  • Osteoclasts / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism
  • RANK Ligand / pharmacology*
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B / genetics
  • Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B / metabolism
  • Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics
  • Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction


  • Drug Combinations
  • Interleukin-1alpha
  • NF-kappa B
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos
  • RANK Ligand
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B
  • Tnfrsf11a protein, mouse
  • Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Cathepsins
  • Cathepsin K
  • Ctsk protein, mouse
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • Carbonic Anhydrase II