Diabetes mellitus and heart failure: epidemiology, mechanisms, and pharmacotherapy

Am J Cardiol. 2007 Feb 19;99(4A):113B-132B. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.11.013. Epub 2006 Dec 22.


Diabetes mellitus and heart failure (HF), both of which are associated with high rates of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, commonly coexist. Given the marked increases in diabetes prevalence in developed countries, the proportion of the population with both conditions is likely to increase substantially. This article reviews the epidemiology of HF and diabetes, the mechanisms whereby diabetes causes HF, and the pharmacotherapy of both HF and diabetes. Specific challenges in treating patients with both HF and diabetes are also addressed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Diabetes Mellitus / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / metabolism
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / metabolism
  • Heart Failure / drug therapy*
  • Heart Failure / epidemiology
  • Heart Failure / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / metabolism
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin Resistance / physiology
  • Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use


  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists