Recent research has shown that microglial cells which are strongly activated in neuropathy can influence development of allodynia and hyperalgesia. Here we demonstrated that preemptive and repeated i.p., administration (16 h and 1 h before injury and then after nerve ligation twice daily for 7 days) of minocycline (15; 30; 50 mg/kg), a potent inhibitor of microglial activation, significantly attenuated the allodynia (von Frey test) and hyperalgesia (cold plate test) measured on day 3, 5, 7 after chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats. Moreover, the 40% improvement of motor function was observed. In mice, i.p., administration of minocycline (30 mg/kg) or pentoxifylline (20 mg/kg) according to the same schedule also significantly decreased allodynia and hyperalgesia on day 7 after CCI. Antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effect of morphine (10 mg/kg; i.p.) was significantly potentiated in groups preemptively and repeatedly injected with minocycline (von Frey test, 18 g versus 22 g; cold plate test, 13 s versus 20 s in rats and 1.2 g versus 2.2 g; 7.5 s versus 10 s in mice; respectively) or pentoxifylline (1.3 g versus 3 g; 7.6 s versus 15 s in mice; respectively). Antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effect of morphine (30 microg; i.t.) given by lumbar puncture in mice was also significantly potentiated in minocycline-treated group (1.2 g versus 2.2 g; 7.5 s versus 11 s; respectively). These findings indicate that preemptive and repeated administration of glial inhibitors suppresses development of allodynia and hyperalgesia and potentiates effects of morphine in rat and mouse models of neuropathic pain.