In contrast to the increasing availability of information pertaining to the care of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) from large-scale observational and interventional studies, epidemiological information on the incidence and prevalence of pediatric CKD is currently limited, imprecise, and flawed by methodological differences between the various data sources. There are distinct geographic differences in the reported causes of CKD in children, in part due to environmental, racial, genetic, and cultural (consanguinity) differences. However, a substantial percentage of children develop CKD early in life, with congenital renal disorders such as obstructive uropathy and aplasia/hypoplasia/dysplasia being responsible for almost one half of all cases. The most favored end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treatment modality in children is renal transplantation, but a lack of health care resources and high patient mortality in the developing world limits the global provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT) and influences patient prevalence. Additional efforts to define the epidemiology of pediatric CKD worldwide are necessary if a better understanding of the full extent of the problem, areas for study, and the potential impact of intervention is desired.