The purpose of this study is to determine whether trichostatin A (TSA), a HDAC specific inhibitor, inhibited the induction and functional activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 a(HIF-1a) and hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in vitro in human osteosarcoma. The relationship between expression of HIF-1a proteion and angiogenesis in tumor specimens was also studied. Hypoxic regulation of VEGF was studied by RT-PCR, western blotting analysis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of HIF-la and VEGF in human osteosarcoma specimens was studied by immunohistochemical analysis. Under hypoxia, no regulation of HIF-1a mRNA expression was found. However, HIF-1a protein levels increased dramatically in response to hypoxia. Hypoxia increased VEGF mRNA level, but it was significantly inhibited by trichostatin A in a time- and dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Strongly positive immunostaining for HIF-1a and VEGF were detectable in the nuclear and cytoplasm of osteosarcoma cells. HIF-1a expressing cells were prominent in areas with high MVD. Significant correlation were found between HIF-1a expression and MVD (p = 0.005, r = 0.767), as well as between VEGF and MVD (p < 0.002, r = 0.701) by Spearman's rank coefficient analysis. These results indicated that HIF-1a is a key factor responsible for angiogenesis by the induction of VEGF. TSA downregulates hypoxia-response genes and hypoxia-induced angiogenesis by the suppression of HIF-1a activity.