Effectiveness, safety and acceptability of 'see and treat' with cryotherapy by nurses in a cervical screening study in India

Br J Cancer. 2007 Mar 12;96(5):738-43. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6603633. Epub 2007 Feb 20.


We evaluated a 'see and treat' procedure involving screening, colposcopy, biopsy and cryotherapy by trained nurses in one-visit in field clinics in a cervical screening study in South India for its acceptability, safety and effectiveness in curing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Women positive on visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) were advised colposcopy, directed biopsies and cryotherapy if they had colposcopic impression of CIN in one visit by nurses in field clinics supervised by a doctor. Side effects and complications were assessed and cure rates were evaluated with VIA, colposcopy and biopsy if colposcopic abnormalities were suspected. Cure was defined as no clinical or histological evidence of CIN at > or =6 months from treatment. Of the 2513 women offered 'see and treat' procedure, 1879 (74.8%) accepted. Of the 1397 women with histologically proved CIN treated with cryotherapy, 1026 reported for follow-up evaluation. Cure rates were 81.4% (752 out of 924) for women with CIN 1; 71.4% (55 out of 77) for CIN 2 and 68.0% (17 out of 25) for CIN 3. Minor side effects and complications were documented in less than 3% of women. 'See and treat' with cryotherapy by nurses under medical supervision is acceptable, safe and effective for cervical cancer prevention in low-resource settings.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / surgery*
  • Colposcopy
  • Cryosurgery*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India
  • Mass Screening*
  • Middle Aged
  • Nurses*
  • Public Health / trends*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery*