Objective: To test whether breastfeeding's protection against anorectic responses to infection is mediated by n-3 fatty acids' attenuation of interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha.
Design: Experimental and observational studies.
Setting: A hospital-based study was conducted.
Subjects: Five groups of infants were followed; three in the experimental and two in the observational study.
Methods: Breast-fed- (BF-1), DHA-supplemented formula- (SFF-1), and non-DHA-supplemented formula-fed (FF-1) infants were studied before and after immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and haemophilus influenzae type b. Pre- and post-immunization energy intakes (EI) and serum IL-1beta and TNFalpha were measured. The two other groups, breast-fed (BF-2) and formula-fed (FF-2) infants with pneumonia were followed throughout hospitalization. EI, IL-1beta and TNFalpha were measured at admission and discharge. Baseline erythrocyte fatty acid contents were determined.
Results: Both cytokines increased following immunization in all feeding groups. Post-immunization reductions in EI of SFF-1 infants (-11.8+/-5%, CI(95)=-23.3, 1.4%, P=0.07) were intermediate to those observed in BF-1 (-5.2+/-4.2%, CI(95)=-15.2, 5.9%, P=0.27) and FF-1 infants (-18+/-4.4%, CI(95)=-29%, -5.4%, P=0.02). In the observational study, TNFalpha (17.2+/-8.3 vs 3.4+/-3.0 ng/l, P=0.001) and decreases in EI (-31+/-43 vs -15+/-31%, CI(95)=-34%, 0.001%, P=0.056) were greater in FF-2 than in BF-2 infants at admission. Breastfeeding duration was associated positively with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) erythrocyte contents, and negatively with admission TNFalpha. Decreases in EIs were associated with IL-1beta and TNFalpha concentrations.
Conclusion: Reductions in EI following immunologic or infectious stimuli were associated with increases in IL-1beta and TNFalpha. Those reductions were attenuated by breastfeeding, and mediated in part by tissue DHA.