In the newly cellularized Drosophila embryo, progress through the cell cycle is regulated at the G2-M transition. We have examined cell-cycle regulation later in Drosophila development, in a group of postembryonic neuronal precursors. The S-phase precursor cells, which generate photoreceptor target neurons (lamina neurons) in the central nervous system, are not present in the absence of photoreceptor innervation. Here we report that axons selectively approach G1-phase precursors. Without axon ingrowth, lamina precursors do not enter their final S phase and by several criteria, arrest in the preceding G1 phase. These findings provide evidence that at this stage in development the control of cell division can occur at the G1-S transition.