Sustained release cyclosporine therapy for bilateral keratoconjunctivitis sicca in a red wolf (Canis rufus)

J Zoo Wildl Med. 2006 Dec;37(4):562-4. doi: 10.1638/06-021.1.


A 12-yr-old intact male red wolf (Canis rufus) diagnosed with bilateral idiopathic dry eye was treated with subconjunctival drug delivery implants designed to release therapeutic levels of cyclosporine from 12-24 mo. Normal tear production and corneal health has been maintained, alleviating the need for daily handling of the animal for topical medication.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cyclosporine / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Implants / therapeutic use
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca / drug therapy
  • Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca / veterinary*
  • Male
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Wolves*


  • Drug Implants
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Cyclosporine