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Review
. 2007 Mar;55(3):224-36.
doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2007.01.009. Epub 2007 Jan 25.

Cruciferous Vegetables and Human Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic Evidence and Mechanistic Basis

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Free PMC article
Review

Cruciferous Vegetables and Human Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic Evidence and Mechanistic Basis

Jane V Higdon et al. Pharmacol Res. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, including indoles and isothiocyanates, and high intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with lower risk of lung and colorectal cancer in some epidemiological studies. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products alter the metabolism or activity of sex hormones in ways that could inhibit the development of hormone-sensitive cancers, but evidence of an inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and breast or prostate cancer in humans is limited and inconsistent. Organizations such as the National Cancer Institute recommend the consumption of five to nine servings of fruits and vegetables daily, but separate recommendations for cruciferous vegetables have not been established. Isothiocyanates and indoles derived from the hydrolysis of glucosinolates, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol (I3C), have been implicated in a variety of anticarcinogenic mechanisms, but deleterious effects also have been reported in some experimental protocols, including tumor promotion over prolonged periods of exposure. Epidemiological studies indicate that human exposure to isothiocyanates and indoles through cruciferous vegetable consumption may decrease cancer risk, but the protective effects may be influenced by individual genetic variation (polymorphisms) in the metabolism and elimination of isothiocyanates from the body. Cooking procedures also affect the bioavailability and intake of glucosinolates and their derivatives. Supplementation with I3C or the related dimer 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) alters urinary estrogen metabolite profiles in women, but the effects of I3C and DIM on breast cancer risk are not known. Small preliminary trials in humans suggest that I3C supplementation may be beneficial in treating conditions related to human papilloma virus infection, such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, but larger randomized controlled trials are needed.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Breakdown of glucosinolates (adapted from [3])
Figure 2
Figure 2. Metabolism of isothiocyanates via the mercapturic acid pathway (adapted from [3,4])
Abbreviations: GST, glutathione S-transferase; γ-TP, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase; CG, cysteinylglycinase; NAT, N-acetyltransferase.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Indole-3-carbinol and its acid condensation products
Figure courtesy of Bharat B Aggarwal, with slight modification from [79]

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