Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is common in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), its association with long-term mortality after MI is controversial and little is known about its influence on patients' health status (symptoms, function, and quality of life). We prospectively enrolled 2,481 patients presenting with MI at 19 United States centers to examine the relations between COPD and patients' long-term mortality, rehospitalization rates, and health status after MI. Patients were administered the disease-specific Seattle Angina Questionnaire and the generic Short Form 12 at baseline and 1 year later. COPD was common (15.6% of patients) and was associated with a substantially greater risk of 1-year mortality (15.8% vs 5.7%, p <0.001) and rehospitalization (48.7% vs 38.6%, p <0.001). After extensive adjustment for baseline differences, patients with COPD had a twofold greater 1-year mortality rate (hazard ratio 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44 to 2.79) and higher rehospitalization rates (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.48). Similarly, adjusted 1-year health status was worse in patients with COPD, with lower 1-year Seattle Angina Questionnaire quality-of-life score (-2.53 points, 95% CI -0.25 to -4.81) and Short Form 12 physical component score (-1.83 points, 95% CI -0.43 to -3.24). In addition, COPD was associated with a trend toward a greater prevalence of angina at 1 year (risk ratio 1.12, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.41). In conclusion, patients with COPD have greater mortality, higher rehospitalization rates, and poorer health status 1 year after a MI. Although additional research is needed, clinicians should recognize that patients with COPD are at high risk for poor outcomes after MI.