A review of employment conditions as social determinants of health part II: the workplace

New Solut. 2006;16(4):429-48. doi: 10.2190/R8Q2-41L5-H4W5-7838.


This is the second part of an article on employment conditions as social determinants of health and health inequalities. In part I of this article, we explored structural (external) employment conditions that affect health inequalities and health gradients. In this article, we try to examine the internal aspects of employment conditions that affect the same variables. It is not our intention to "box" employment conditions in a rigid framework within an internal domain of person-hazard interaction. The objective of examining this variable is to scrutinize internal aspects of employment conditions at a comprehensive policy level in conjunction with external contextual variables. Major occupational health concerns are examined in relationship to globalization, child labor, and work in the formal and informal sectors. Interventions that can eliminate or greatly reduce these exposures as well as those that have been unsuccessful are reviewed. Innovative interventions including work organization change, cleaner production, control banding, national and international coalitions, participatory training, and participatory approaches to improving the work environment are reviewed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Ergonomics / methods
  • Health Status*
  • Humans
  • Internal-External Control
  • International Cooperation
  • Occupational Exposure / adverse effects
  • Occupational Exposure / prevention & control
  • Occupational Health*
  • Social Environment*
  • Staff Development / organization & administration
  • Stress, Psychological / epidemiology
  • Workplace / organization & administration*