Evaluation of the impedance tonometers TGDc-01 and iCare according to the international ocular tonometer standards ISO 8612

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2007 Sep;245(9):1259-65. doi: 10.1007/s00417-006-0483-3. Epub 2007 Feb 21.


Background: Two new tonometers have been introduced that are based on the impedance principle. Both the TGDc-01 (transpalpebral measurement) and the iCare (corneal measurement) do not require corneal anaesthesia. The present work presents an evaluation of both devices.

Methods: Comparative measurements using one of the new tonometers and applanation tonometry were performed by one investigator according to the international standard for ocular tonometer (ISO 8612). Measurements were performed on 445 eyes without corneal pathology from 243 patients. Six measurements were performed for iCare and 3 for TGDc, immediately followed by 3 applanation tonometry measurements.

Results: The correlation coefficient with respect to applanation tonometry was 0.81 for TGDc and 0.95 for iCare. TGDc-01 measurements showed an average deviation of 3.1 +/- 2.6 mmHg to those of Perkins applanation tonometry. The maximum difference was 28.7 mmHg below and 9.8 mmHg above the results of applanation tonometry. iCare showed an average deviation of 2.5 +/- 1.1 mmHg to Goldmann tonometry. The maximum difference was 14.5 mmHg below and 9.8 mmHg above.

Conclusions: The results of both new tonometers showed a good correlation with the reference applanation tonometric methods, but the strict requirements of ISO 8612 are not fulfilled by either tonometer at present. Additionally, transpalpebral measurements with the TGDc-01 showed unacceptably high variability.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Electric Impedance
  • Glaucoma / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure*
  • Middle Aged
  • Reference Standards
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Tonometry, Ocular / instrumentation*