The metazoan receptors for insulin (INSR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1R), and other insulin-like molecules are transmembrane tyrosine kinases involved in the regulation of cell size, cell proliferation, development, signaling of nutritional and environmental conditions, and aging. Historically, mutations in the human insulin receptor have been studied because such changes often lead to severe insulin resistance. More recently, amino acid sequence alterations in the insulin receptor-like receptors of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, as well as in the mouse insulin receptor have been the focus of attention. These modifications can have profound effects on growth, body size, metabolism, and aging. To integrate the many findings on insulin/IGF1 receptor structure and function across species we have created "Receptors for Insulin and Insulin-like Molecules" (RILM), a curated computer-based resource that displays residue-by-residue information on sequence homology, three-dimensional structure, structure/function annotation, and documented mutations. The resource includes data obtained from sequence and structure analysis tools, primary database resources, and published reports. The information is integrated via a structure-based multiple sequence alignment of diverse members of the family. RILM was designed to provide easy access to multiple data types that could prove useful in the analysis of the effect of mutations on protein structure and ligand binding within this receptor family. RILM is available at www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk/RILM.
(c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.