Opioids in the parturient with chronic nonmalignant pain: a retrospective review

J Opioid Manag. Jan-Feb 2006;2(1):31-4. doi: 10.5055/jom.2006.0005.


The purpose of this research was to determine the neonatal outcomes of women who had been taking medically prescribed opioids throughout their pregnancy. A retrospective case study was done of 15 pregnancies associated with maternal opiate use between January 1, 1999, and September 30, 2002. Two cases were excluded due to coaddiction. Neonatal data were collected including gestational age, head circumference, length, birth weight, Apgar score at one and five minutes, details of resuscitation required, and Neonatal Abstinence Score. There were 13 pregnancies, which resulted in 13 live births; opioids prescribed included oxycodone, codeine, meperidine, fentanyl, dilaudid, morphine, and methadone. There were four babies with one-minute Apgar score = -5, and two babies with five-minute Apgar score = 5. It was concluded that neonatal growth markers in this population were within normal limits as plotted on the standard growth and development record of Gairdner-Pearson. Five out of 13 (38.5 percent) neonates were diagnosed with opioid discontinuation syndrome.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Analgesics, Opioid* / administration & dosage
  • Analgesics, Opioid* / adverse effects
  • Analgesics, Opioid* / therapeutic use
  • Apgar Score
  • Birth Weight / drug effects*
  • Chronic Disease
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome / etiology*
  • Pain / drug therapy*
  • Pain / etiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Analgesics, Opioid