Both Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and cannabidiol are known to have a neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia. We examined whether repeated treatment with both drugs led to tolerance of their neuroprotective effects in mice subjected to 4h-middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. The neuroprotective effect of Delta(9)-THC but not cannabidiol was inhibited by SR141716, cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist. Fourteen-day repeated treatment with Delta(9)-THC, but not cannabidiol, led to tolerance of the neuroprotective and hypothermic effects. In addition, repeated treatment with Delta(9)-THC reversed the increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF), while cannabidiol did not reverse that effect. Repeated treatment with Delta(9)-THC caused CB(1) receptor desensitization and down-regulation in MCA occluded mice. On the contrary, cannabidiol did not influence these effects. Moreover, the neuroprotective effect and an increase in CBF induced by repeated treatment with cannabidiol were in part inhibited by WAY100135, serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist. Cannabidiol exhibited stronger antioxidative power than Delta(9)-THC in an in vitro study using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Thus, cannabidiol is a potent antioxidant agent without developing tolerance to its neuroprotective effect, acting through a CB(1) receptor-independent mechanism. It is to be hoped that cannabidiol will have a palliative action and open new therapeutic possibilities for treating cerebrovascular disorders.