Modulation of immune response in mice immunised with an inactivated Salmonella vaccine and gavaged with Andrographis paniculata extract or andrographolide

Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Apr;7(4):515-23. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2006.12.008. Epub 2007 Jan 17.


Gavage of mice, immunised with an inactivated S. typhimurium vaccine, with Andrographis paniculata extract [APE] or andrographolide [AND] resulted in an enhancement of Salmonella-specific antibody response and induction of cell-mediated response against salmonellosis. Mice were vaccinated with either one or two doses of killed S. typhimurium vaccine and fed two different quantities of APE or AND, for 14 days in mice immunised with one dose of the vaccine, and for 28 days in mice immunised with two doses of vaccine, respectively. Both APE and AND were found to enhance IgG antibody levels against S. typhimurium, the enhancement being statistically significant in mice receiving two doses of the vaccine. Splenocyte cultures, prepared from mice immunised with the killed Salmonella vaccine and treated with APE or AND, showed a remarkable increase in the production IFN-gamma following stimulation with the bacterial lysate, indicating an induction of Salmonella-specific cell-mediated response/immune response.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Andrographis / chemistry*
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / blood
  • Antigens, Bacterial / immunology
  • Diterpenes / pharmacology*
  • Female
  • Immunization
  • Immunoglobulin A / immunology
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Immunoglobulin G / immunology
  • Immunologic Factors / pharmacology*
  • Interferon-gamma / biosynthesis
  • Interferon-gamma / immunology
  • Intestine, Small / drug effects
  • Intestine, Small / immunology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Salmonella Vaccines*
  • Salmonella typhimurium / immunology*
  • Spleen / cytology
  • Spleen / drug effects
  • Spleen / immunology
  • Vaccines, Inactivated


  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Antigens, Bacterial
  • Diterpenes
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Plant Extracts
  • Salmonella Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Inactivated
  • andrographolide
  • Interferon-gamma