COX (cyclooxygenase) is one of the key enzymes involved in the synthesis of a variety of prostaglandins (PGs), some of which have been strongly linked to inflammation. One of its two well-known isoforms, COX-2, is an inducible enzyme whose induction and expression is dynamically regulated by growth factors, mitogens, and tumor promoters. Several animal and clinical studies have reported the chemopreventive effect of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor; and in particular, a few studies have shown that celecoxib prevents the development of gastric cancer. Administration of celecoxib also showed increases in cardiovascular risk and disruption of renal physiology. Therefore, studies hoping to clarify how selective COX-2 inhibitors modulate gastric cancer must keep in mind that coxibs have also been linked to serious cardiovascular events and disruption of renal physiology.