The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of hydrophobic acid-etched (A) and coarse-blasted large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) surfaces as well as hydrophilic modified acid-etched (modA) and modified coarse-blasted large-grit and acid-etched (modSLA) surfaces on the behavior of MG63 cells grown on these surfaces through determination of cell attachment and cell proliferation, time-lapse microscopy of fluorescence-labeled cells, and determination of gene expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). No significant difference of cell attachment on various titanium surfaces was found. Increased cell proliferation was observed on the A surface and the SLA surface compared with the modA surface and the modSLA surface. After 2 days of incubation, on modSLA and modA surfaces a tendency of formation of cell clusters has been observed, which was most pronounced on modSLA surface. On the A and the SLA surface, cell cluster formation started after longer incubation periods. The expression level of the bone-associated genes (alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, type-I-collagen, osteoprotegerin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase) detected by RT-PCR was highest on the modSLA surface. In conclusion it has been demonstrated that the modSLA surface results in an enhanced cluster formation of osteoblasts grown on this surface and in an increased expression of key osteogenic regulatory genes in osteoblasts.