The Surgical Council on Resident Education (SCORE) is a voluntary consortium of six organizations with responsibility for resident education in surgery and an interest in improving the training of surgeons. The founding organizations are the American Board of Surgery (ABS), the American College of Surgeons (ACS), the American Surgical Association (ASA), the Association of Program Directors in Surgery (APDS), the Association for Surgical Education (ASE), and the Residency Review Committee for Surgery of the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (RRC-S). SCORE emerged from a concerted desire to strengthen the graduate education of surgeons and to assure the competence of surgical trainees in the US. SCORE has a unique ability to foster change in resident education because it brings together the major regulatory organizations (ABS and RRC-S), the major professional organization in surgery (ACS), the senior academic organization in surgery (ASA), and the major surgical education organizations (APDS and ASE). SCORE envisions an ambitious agenda. At its meeting in Philadelphia on November 20, 2006, it began developing a standardized curriculum in general surgery to span the period from medical school to practice, and it defined the scope of the curriculum. It approved continued work of building a national Web site to deliver educational content to general surgery residents and to assist program directors. It endorsed continued development of a basic surgery curriculum for all first-year surgery residents and development of a comprehensive technical skills curriculum for all levels of general surgery training, both of which have been initiated by the ACS. In the future, SCORE plans to examine issues such as the assessment of technical competency, the role of simulation in surgical education, the teaching and assessment of professional behaviors, the practicing surgeon's view of the adequacy of residency training, faculty development, and the attrition of residents from surgery residencies. Members of SCORE intend to investigate best practices in surgical education in other countries. SCORE hopes to take a leadership position in improving the quality of surgical education and surgery in the US.