The synthesis and receptor-binding activities at A1 and A2 adenosine receptors for a series of 2-alkynyladenosines are described. The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of 2-iodoadenosine (4a) with various terminal alkynes in the presence of bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium dichloride and cuprous iodide in N,N-dimethylformamide containing triethylamine gives 2-alkynyladenosines (5a-r). An economical synthetic method for the preparation of 9-(2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-6-chloro-2-iodopurine++ + (2), which is a precursor of 4a, is also included. Several transformation reactions of 2-(1-octyn-1-yl)adenosine (5e) and 2-(1-ethyn-1-yl)adenosine (9) and a similar cross-coupling reaction of 6-chloropurine derivative 11 and 8-bromoadenosine (13) with 1-octyne are also reported. Many of these 2-alkynyladenosines tested for A1 and A2 adenosine receptor binding activities in rat brain are selective for the A2 adenosine receptor. Among them, 2-(1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine (5c) has the highest affinity for both A1 and A2 receptors with Ki values of 126.5 and 2.8 nM, respectively. The structure-activity relationship of this series of compounds including 6- or 8-alkynylpurine nucleosides and 2-alkyl- and 2-alkenyladenosines is discussed in terms of potency at both receptor subtypes. Additionally, we describe how hypotensive activity and heart rate decrease brought on by 5 and some other compounds with spontaneously hypertensive rats are proportional to the order of the potency to both A1 and A2 binding affinities. Thus, 2-alkynyladenosines are interesting and promising as antihypertensive agents that should be considered for further detailed preclinical evaluation.