Glyoxylate reductase catalyzes the NAD(P)H-linked reduction of glyoxylate to glycolate. Here, the 1.7 A crystal structure of glyoxylate reductase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 complexed with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NADP(H)] determined by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method is reported. The monomeric structure comprises the two domains typical of NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases: the substrate-binding domain (SBD) and the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). The crystal structure and analytical ultracentrifugation results revealed dimer formation. In the NADP(H)-binding site, the pyrophosphate moiety and the 2'-phosphoadenosine moiety are recognized by the glycine-rich loop (residues 157-162) and by loop residues 180-182, respectively. Furthermore, the present study revealed that P. horikoshii glyoxylate reductase contains aromatic clusters and has a larger number of ion pairs and a lower percentage of hydrophobic accessible surface area than its mesophilic homologues, suggesting its thermostability mechanism.