Chocolate, well-being and health among elderly men

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb;62(2):247-53. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602707. Epub 2007 Feb 28.


Objective: We hypothesized that chocolate preference would be related to health and psychological well-being in old men.

Design, setting and participants: We have followed up a socio-economically homogenous group of men, born in 1919-1934, since the 1960s. In 2002-2003, a mailed questionnaire was used to assess the health and well-being (including questions related to positive life orientation, visual analogue scales and the Zung depression score) of survivors. In addition, candy preference was inquired. Those men who reported no candy consumption (n=108) were excluded from the analyses.

Outcome measures: Psychological well-being in old age.

Results: The response rate was 69% (1367 of 1991). Of the respondents, 860 and 399 preferred chocolate and other type of candy, respectively. The average age in both candy groups was 76 years. Of the respondents, 99% were home-dwelling, 96% were retired and 87% were presently married, without differences between the candy groups. Men preferring chocolate had lower body mass index and waist circumference, and they also reported more exercise and better subjective health (P=0.008) than other candy consumers. Variables related to psychological well-being were consistently better in those preferring chocolate. The differences were statistically significant in feeling of loneliness (P=0.01), feeling of happiness (P=0.01), having plans for the future (P=0.0002) and the Zung depression score (P=0.02).

Conclusions: In this socioeconomically homogenous male cohort, chocolate preference in old age was associated with better health, optimism and better psychological well-being.

Sponsorship: The Academy of Finland, the Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, the Helsinki University Central Hospital and the Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over / psychology
  • Aging / psychology*
  • Cacao / chemistry*
  • Candy*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Depression / psychology
  • Finland
  • Health Status*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Quality of Life*
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires