Thiopurine treatment in inflammatory bowel disease: clinical pharmacology and implication of pharmacogenetically guided dosing

Clin Pharmacokinet. 2007;46(3):187-208. doi: 10.2165/00003088-200746030-00001.


This review summarises clinical pharmacological aspects of thiopurines in the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Current knowledge of pharmacogenetically guided dosing is discussed for individualisation of thiopurine therapy, particularly to avoid severe adverse effects. Both azathioprine and mercaptopurine are pro-drugs that undergo extensive metabolism. The catabolic enzyme thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is polymorphically expressed, and currently 23 genetic variants have been described. On the basis of an excellent phenotype-genotype correlation for TPMT, genotyping has become a safe and reliable tool for determination of a patient's individual phenotype. Thiopurine-related adverse drug reactions are frequent, ranging from 5% up to 40%, in both a dose-dependent and -independent manner. IBD patients with low TPMT activity are at high risk of developing severe haematotoxicity if pharmacogenetically guided dosing is not performed. Based on several cost-benefit analyses, assessment of TPMT activity is recommended prior to thiopurine therapy in patients with IBD. The underlying mechanisms of azathioprine/mercaptopurine-related hepatotoxicity, pancreatitis and azathioprine intolerance are still unknown. Although the therapeutic response appears to be related to 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) concentrations above a threshold of 230-260 pmol per 8 x 10(8) red blood cells, at present therapeutic drug monitoring of 6-TGN can be recommended only to estimate patients' compliance.Drug-drug interactions between azathioprine/mercaptopurine and aminosalicylates, diuretics, NSAIDs, warfarin and infliximab are discussed. The concomitant use of allopurinol without dosage adjustment of azathioprine/mercaptopurine leads to clinically relevant severe haematotoxicity due to elevated thiopurine levels. Several studies indicate that thiopurine therapy in IBD during pregnancy is safe. Thus, azathioprine/mercaptopurine should not be withdrawn in strictly indicated cases of pregnant IBD patients. However, breastfeeding is contraindicated during azathioprine/mercaptopurine therapy. Use of azathioprine/mercaptopurine for induction and maintenance of remission in corticosteroid-dependent or corticosteroid-refractory IBD, particularly Crohn's disease, is evidence based. To improve response rates in thiopurine therapy of IBD, comprehensive analyses including metabolic patterns and genome-wide profiling in patients with azathioprine/mercaptopurine treatment are required to identify novel candidate genes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Drug Interactions
  • Female
  • Fertility / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / genetics
  • Lactation / drug effects
  • Mercaptopurine / therapeutic use*
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Pregnancy


  • Mercaptopurine